This speech was given the day before (Oh yeah). One key principle to understand in metaphor criticism is that motivation for the action through the usage of metaphors (Foss 301). [, American Prophet: Online Course Companion, Freedom's Ring: King's "I Have a Dream" Speech. If it means leaving work, if it means leaving school, be there. [Applause] (Go ahead, Go ahead) And so I'm happy tonight; I'm not worried about anything; I'm not fearing any man. And once that's punctured you're drowned in your own blood, that's the end of you. (Yes) Somewhere I read (Yes) that the greatness of America is the right to protest for right. Put your knowledge to the test. And then they can move on downtown and tell Mayor Loeb to do what is right. There are three main metaphors that King uses: This metaphor is used to portray King�s disgust with the state of a And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out (Yeah), or what would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers. I've seen them so often. (Yeah, All right) Something is happening in Memphis, something is happening in our world. If I had sneezed [Applause], if I had sneezed, I wouldn't have been here in 1963 (All right), when the black people of Birmingham, Alabama, aroused the conscience of this nation and brought into being the Civil Rights Bill. We aren't engaged in any negative protest and in any negative arguments with anybody. And you know, it's possible that the priest and the Levite looked over that man on the ground and wondered if the robbers were still around. (Yeah) We are saying [Applause], we are saying that we are God's children. (Yes sir) You know, several years ago I was in New York City autographing the first book that I had written. Longevity has its place. That's a dangerous road. They didn't get around to that. And I looked at that letter and I'll never forget it. "I've Been to the Mountaintop" is the popular name of the last speech delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. King spoke on April 3, 1968, at the Mason Temple (Church of God in Christ Headquarters) in Memphis, Tennessee.On the following day, King was assassinated. In the spring of 1968, King traveled to Memphis to support the 1,300 striking sanitation workers protesting low wages and unfit working conditions. He's been to jail for struggling; he's been kicked out of Vanderbilt University for this struggling; but he's still going on, fighting for the rights of his people. And I don't mind. We rented a car and drove from Jerusalem down to Jericho. Note that this is not a comprehensive list and you are encouraged to look for other examples in â¦ The only question I heard from her was, "Are you Martin Luther King?" But it doesnât matter with me now. And while sitting there autographing books, a demented black woman came up. [Applause] If I lived in China or even Russia, or any totalitarian country, maybe I could understand some of these illegal injunctions. You may not be on strike (Yeah), but either we go up together or we go down together. (Yes) In the days of Jesus it came to be known as the "Bloody Pass." I'd received a visit and a letter from the governor of New York, but I've forgotten what that letter said. Longevity has its place. And whenever men and women straighten their backs up, they are going somewhere, because a man can't ride your back unless it is bent. (That's right) I read the articles. Martin Luther King Jr.�s �I�ve Been to the Mountaintop�. But Iâm not concerned about that now. And I've â¦ Because Iâve been to the mountaintop. I remember in Birmingham, Alabama, when we were in that majestic struggle there, we would move out of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church day after day. [Applause] As Jesse Jackson has said, up to now only the garbage men have been feeling pain. But I'm not concerned about that now. We have an opportunity to make America a better nation. (Yeah) [Applause] We mean business now and we are determined to gain our rightful place in God's world. [Applause], And so, as a result of this, we are asking you tonight (Amen) to go out and tell your neighbors not to buy Coca-Cola in Memphis. PowToons Speech Analysis: Colin Olesky, BoÅ¾idar MiletiÄ, Michael Weed. (All right, Yes) And I see God working in this period of the twentieth century in a way that men in some strange way are responding. Fifty years ago this week, the Rev. For more information on Martin Luther King Jr. (Right) The issue is injustice. [Applause] You have six or seven black insurance companies here in the city of Memphis. [Applause]. Log In. The only type of videos I'm actually somewhat almost "ok" at making ft. watermarks That's the question. You know, what's beautiful to me is to see all of these ministers of the Gospel. (Yes) Again with Amos, "Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream." But it really doesnât matter with me now, because Iâve been to the mountaintop, and I donât mind. [Laughter, applause] But that day is all over. usage. (Yeah) [Applause], We don't have to argue with anybody. (Oh yeah) And so the first question that the priest asked, the first question that the Levite asked was, "If I stop to help this man, what will happen to me?" The question is, "If I do not stop to help the sanitation workers, what will happen to them?" As a teen, he did very well in â¦ After you leave the United States, Soviet Russia, Great Britain, West Germany, France, and I could name the others, the American Negro collectively is richer than most nations of the world. And I was looking down writing and I said, "Yes.". [Applause continues] Like anybody, I would like to live a long life—longevity has its place. (Oh yeah), I would go on even to the great heyday of the Roman Empire (Yes), and I would see developments around there, through various emperors and leaders. Longevity has its place. The departure of his flight from Atlanta that morning had been â¦ I call upon you to be with us when we go out Monday. In what follows, we will look at some of the most-used rhetorical devices in âIâve Been to the Mountaintopâ, giving you examples from the speech. I just want to do Godâs will, and Heâs allowed me to go up to the mountain. We have an injunction and we're going into court tomorrow morning (Go ahead) to fight this illegal, unconstitutional injunction. Did you know that? Secondly, let us keep the issues where they are. We have an annual income of more than thirty billion dollars a year, which is more than all of the exports of the United States and more than the national budget of Canada. That's the issue. (Yeah) And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. You know what happened the other day, and the press dealt only with the window breaking. They very seldom got around to mentioning the fact that 1,300 sanitation workers are on strike, and that Memphis is not being fair to them, and that Mayor Loeb is in dire need of a doctor. Good luck â the Stickman is counting on you! Now we've got to go on in Memphis just like that. where men and women are being beaten for dead on the side of the road. (Amen), And I want to thank God, once more, for allowing me to be here with you. Because I've been to the mountaintop. During this time, racism was a growing problem that was creating uproars through hate crimes, and violent protests. It's possible that those men were afraid. (Yes sir) It came out in the New York Times the next morning that if I had merely sneezed, I would have died. But I wouldn't stop there. [Applause] And we went before the fire hoses. But I know, somehow, that only when it is dark enough can you see the stars. And that was the fact that there was a certain kind of fire that no water could put out. And we've had the plane protected and guarded all night.". Time 0:00: Score my Quiz: Win 0: Fail 0: And I read that if you had sneezed, you would have died. We are determined to be people. It balances the first two metaphors by seeing the nation not just by its problems, but by its potential. I'm not asking you something that we don't do ourselves in SCLC. He kept the slaves fighting among themselves. (That's right) That's always the problem with a little violence. âBut it really doesnât matter with me now, because Iâve been to the mountaintop â¦ Iâve seen the Promised Land. (Keep on), I would even come up to the day of the Renaissance and get a quick picture of all that the Renaissance did for the cultural and aesthetic life of man. (Yeah) [Applause] And that's all this whole thing is about. [Applause] And when we have our march, you need to be there. throughout his speech and serves as road maps for his audience to understand And I've looked over. I read in the paper of your misfortune and of your suffering. And I knew that as they were sitting in, they were really standing up (Yes sir) for the best in the American dream and taking the whole nation back to those great wells of democracy, which were dug deep by the founding fathers in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. (Sure) You remember that a Levite (Sure) and a priest passed by on the other side; they didn't stop to help him. But I wouldn't stop there. Judge Hooks and others will tell you that we have an account here in the savings and loan association from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. I just want to do God's will. But I wouldn't stop there. (All right) But I wouldn't stop there. That's power right there, if we know how to pool it. [Applause] And so just as I say we aren't going to let any dogs or water hoses turn us around, we aren't going to let any injunction turn us around. (All right), But then the Good Samaritan came by, and he reversed the question: "If I do not stop to help this man, what will happen to him?" [Applause] We are choosing these companies because they haven't been fair in their hiring policies, and we are choosing them because they can begin the process of saying they are going to support the needs and the rights of these men who are on strike. That's a strange statement. Audio http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop.htm And I don't mind. [Laughter] It's always good to have your closest friend and associate to say something good about you, and Ralph Abernathy is the best friend that I have in the world. I believe the speech âIâve Been to the Mountaintopâ given By Dr. Martin Luther King is a great example of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos, verbal and non verbal communication. Reflection on MLKâs âIâve Been to the Mountaintopâ This year at Hanley Elementary a kindergartener was hit by a car while she was walking home from school. [Laughter] That's a possibility. (Yeah) At other times we would speculate that there was a religious law that one who was engaged in religious ceremonials was not to touch a human body twenty-four hours before the ceremony. Something is happening in our world. But I'm not concerned about that now. (Yeah)[Applause] Tell them not to buy–what is the other bread?–Wonder Bread. (Yeah) The masses of people are rising up. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. speeches are often remembered for their powerful language and his metaphor [Applause] This is what we have to do. And I've seen the Promised Land. nation who is infected with a disease of racism. (Go ahead) But I want you to know tonight (Yes), that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land. Martin Luther King Jr. alluded to the parable of the Good Samaritan in his famous âIâve been to the Mountaintopâ speech, given on April 3, 1968 ât he day before he was assassinated, in Memphis, Tennessee. Not, "If I stop to help the sanitation workers, what will happen to all of the hours that I usually spend in my office every day and every week as a pastor?" âIâve Been to the Mountaintop,â Dr. Kingâs Last Sermon Annotated By NIKITA STEWART APRIL 2, 2018 On April 3, 1968, the Rev. King Jr. delivered this speech on April 3. The next minute I felt something beating on my chest. [Laughter], But I'm going to tell you what my imagination tells me. Other articles where Iâve Been to the Mountaintop is discussed: assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Mountaintop Speech: On April 3 King was back in Memphis, where the city government had sought an injunction to prevent him from leading another march. Gratitude in the workplace: How gratitude can improve your well-being and â¦ [Applause] Now we've got to keep attention on that. I left Atlanta this morning, and as we got started on the plane–there were six of us–the pilot said over the public address system: "We are sorry for the delay, but we have Dr. Martin Luther King on the plane. (That's right) And we've come by here to ask you to make the first item on your agenda fair treatment where God's children are concerned. The speech primarily concerns the Memphis Sanitation Strike.King â¦ Survival demands that we grapple with them. You start out in Jerusalem, which is about twelve hundred miles, or rather, twelve hundred feet above sea level. She said, "While it should not matter, I would like to mention that I'm a white girl. Jesus ended up saying this was the good man, this was the great man because he had the capacity to project the "I" into the "thou," and to be concerned about his brother. You reveal that you are determined [Audience:] (Right) to go on anyhow. (Amen) But it really doesn't matter with me now, because I've been to the mountaintop. Now what does all this mean in this great period of history? Now we are poor people, individually we are poor when you compare us with white society in America. âIâve Been to the Mountaintopâ was the last speech delivered by Martin Luther King, Jr. Championing a nonviolent movement for social equality, Martin Luther King, Jr., became the catalyst for monumental change. (Amen) Nothing would be more tragic than to stop at this point in Memphis. But I'm not concerned about that now. And I want to say tonight [Applause], I want to say tonight that I, too, am happy that I didn't sneeze. (All right), I would move on by Greece, and take my mind to Mount Olympus. (Yes). Iâve Been to the Mountaintop MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. We begin the process of building a greater economic base, and at the same time, we are putting pressure where it really hurts. I can remember [Applause], I can remember when Negroes were just going around, as Ralph has said so often, scratching where they didn't itch and laughing when they were not tickled. [Applause continues] Like anybody, I would like to live a long lifeâlongevity has its place. It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence in this world; it's nonviolence or nonexistence. [Applause] It's all right to talk about the new Jerusalem, but one day God's preacher must talk about the new New York, the new Atlanta, the new Philadelphia, the new Los Angeles, the new Memphis, Tennessee. Tell them not to buy Hart's bread. And that blade had gone through, and the X rays revealed that the tip of the blade was on the edge of my aorta, the main artery. (Go ahead) Or it's possible that they felt that the man on the ground was merely faking (Yeah), and he was acting like he had been robbed and hurt in order to seize them over there, lure them there for quick and easy seizure. He spoke on April 3, 1968 at the Mason Temple in Memphis, Tennessee, a day before his assassination. Longevity has its place. Now we must kind of redistribute that pain. (All right) If we were Baptist or some other denominations, we had been immersed. [Applause] Bull Connor next would say, "Turn the fire hoses on." coincidental, but instead serve as "symbols to construct reality" And Heâs allowed me to go up to the mountain. [Applause], Let us rise up tonight with a greater readiness. I still cringe at the thought of losing a student in the Hanley community. metaphors "prescribe how to act" and give the audience the proper We don't have to curse and go around acting bad with our words. But I wouldn't stop there. But I wouldn't stop there. King uses three main metaphors together to construct a whole picture of reality, and how this reality demands a certain action. It's a winding, meandering road. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. One day a man came to Jesus and he wanted to raise some questions about some vital matters of life. Longevity has its place. And they did, and we would just go on in the paddy wagon singing, "We Shall Overcome." And wherever they are assembled today, whether they are in Johannesburg, South Africa; Nairobi, Kenya; Accra, Ghana; New York City; Atlanta, Georgia; Jackson, Mississippi; or Memphis, Tennessee, the cry is always the same: "We want to be free." Now let me say as I move to my conclusion that we've got to give ourselves to this struggle until the end. Allusion means making an indirect reference to a person, event, or literature that helps with the purpose of the speech. That couldn't stop us. And I don't mind. And I don't mind. And I've looked over. King Jr. delivered this speech on April 3rd 1968 at the Church of And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. I just want to do God's will. Metaphor Criticism is a method of criticism that documents the (Yeah), I would even go by the way that the man for whom I'm named had his habitat, and I would watch Martin Luther as he tacks his ninety-five theses on the door at the church of Wittenberg. We are saying that we are determined to be men. (That's right, Speak) [Applause], Now not only that, we've got to strengthen black institutions. (Yes) Now about injunctions. And we'd just go on singing, "Over my head, I see freedom in the air." A Call to Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. But it really doesn't matter with me now, because I've been to the mountaintop. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. The nation is sick, trouble is in the land, confusion all around. We don't need any bricks and bottles; we don't need any Molotov cocktails. And I'm happy that he's allowed me to be in Memphis. I've Been to the Mountaintop: Metaphive Metaphors (and Other Figures of Speech) Quiz. I just want to do God's will. (Yes) It's really conducive for ambushing. And Iâve seen the Promised Land. (Yes) The question is not, "If I stop to help this man in need, what will happen to me?" (Yes) And there was a power there which Bull Connor couldn't adjust to (All right), and so we ended up transforming Bull into a steer, and we on our struggle in Birmingham. Nov. 21, 2020. It said simply, "Dear Dr. King: I am a ninth-grade student at the White Plains High School." It contains within it a discourse for action by way of the example of �The Good And I want to commend the preachers, under the leadership of these noble men: James Lawson, one who has been in this struggle for many years. [Applause] We are going on. And you know, if I were standing at the beginning of time with the possibility of taking a kind of general and panoramic view of the whole of human history up to now, and the Almighty said to me, "Martin Luther King, which age would you like to live in?" (There you go) And I ask you to follow through here. If I had sneezed, I wouldn't have had a chance later that year, in August, to try to tell America about a dream that I had had. [Applause], And another reason I'm happy to live in this period is that we have been forced to a point where we are going to have to grapple with the problems that men have been trying to grapple with through history, but the demands didn't force them to do it. Now the other thing we'll have to do is this: always anchor our external direct action with the power of economic withdrawal. (Yeah) [Applause], I would come on up even to 1863 and watch a vacillating president by the name of Abraham Lincoln finally come to the conclusion that he had to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. (Yeah) [Applause] And if we are God's children, we don't have to live like we are forced to live. [Applause] Be concerned about your brother. Start studying I've Been to the Mountaintop. What is visual communication and why it matters; Nov. 20, 2020. It balances But I want to thank all of them, and I want you to thank them because so often preachers aren't concerned about anything but themselves. [Applause] Let us develop a kind of dangerous unselfishness. (Yes), But there was another letter (All right) that came from a little girl, a young girl who was a student at the White Plains High School. (Go ahead) And I've looked over (Yes sir), and I've seen the Promised Land. (All right) And they would throw us in, and old Bull would say, "Take 'em off." [Applause] And I'm always happy to see a relevant ministry. And to be sure that all of the bags were checked, and to be sure that nothing would be wrong on the plane, we had to check out everything carefully. Maybe they felt it was better to deal with the problem from the causal root, rather than to get bogged down with an individual effect. (That's right, Yeah) I call upon you to take your money out of the banks downtown and deposit your money in Tri-State Bank. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. At points he wanted to trick Jesus (That's right), and show him that he knew a little more than Jesus knew and throw him off base. (Yes) [Applause]. Think youâve got your head wrapped around I've Been to the Mountaintop? the first two metaphors by seeing the nation not just by its problems, but by But it really doesn't matter with me now, because I've been to the mountaintop. Well, I don't know what will happen now; we've got some difficult days ahead. King�s metaphors of a given artifact and show how these specific metaphors are not It's all right to talk about long white robes over yonder, in all of its symbolism, but ultimately people want some suits and dresses and shoes to wear down here. But I'm not concerned about that now. But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. But I wouldn't stop there. [Applause] But whenever the slaves get together, something happens in Pharaoh's court, and he cannot hold the slaves in slavery. Through the speech âIâve Been to the Mountaintopâ, Martin Luther King Jr. wants to give hope to the audience. In this case, indirect references and direct references are the predominant language device used by the speaker, so you can find many examples in the speech. You see, the Jericho Road is a dangerous road. By the hundreds we would move out, and Bull Connor would tell them to send the dogs forth, and they did come. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. [Applause] It's all right to talk about streets flowing with milk and honey, but God has commanded us to be concerned about the slums down here and His children who can't eat three square meals a day. If I had sneezed, I wouldn't have been in Memphis to see a community rally around those brothers and sisters who are suffering. They allowed me to read some of the mail that came in, and from all over the states and the world kind letters came in. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. They don't know what to do. You know, whenever Pharaoh wanted to prolong the period of slavery in Egypt, he had a favorite, favorite formula of doing it. (Yes) Not, "If I stop to help the sanitation workers, what will happen to my job?" The most powerful and relevant of King�s metaphors, this metaphor Take out your insurance there. And I've â¦ (That's right) And we've got to say to the nation, we know how it's coming out. Finally, a man of another race came by. But I'm not concerned about that now. Somewhere I read (Yes) of the freedom of speech. for a country that would be free of prejudice. Here's the first part: (Yeah) And as soon as we got on that road I said to my wife, "I can see why Jesus used this as the setting for his parable." I may not get there with you. Martin Luther King, Jr.: Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Somewhere the preacher must have a kind of fire shut up in his bones (Yes), and whenever injustice is around he must tell it. (All right). I read a few, but one of them I will never forget. [Applause] And what is the other bread company, Jesse? P: (650) 723-2092 | F: (650) 723-2093 | firstname.lastname@example.org | Campus Map. (Yeah) [Applause], I would even come up to the early thirties and see a man grappling with the problems of the bankruptcy of his nation, and come with an eloquent cry that "we have nothing to fear but fear itself." reveals King�s hope for the nation to become the promised land. (Yes) Somehow the preacher must be an Amos, who said, "When God Speaks, who can but prophesy?" At this point in his ministry, he had broadened his mission, speaking out not only for racial justice but also for greater I would take my mental flight by Egypt (Yeah), and I would watch God's children in their magnificent trek from the dark dungeons of Egypt through, or rather, across the Red Sea, through the wilderness, on toward the Promised Land. If I had sneezed (Yes), I wouldn't have been around here in 1961, when we decided to take a ride for freedom and ended segregation in interstate travel. God in Christ headquarters in Memphis. And I've looked over. (All right) And every now and then we begin to wonder whether maybe they were not going down to Jerusalem, or down to Jericho, rather, to organize a Jericho Road Improvement Association. (Amen) It's a marvelous picture. (Yes) Go by the savings and loan association. Never stop and forget that collectively, that means all of us together, collectively we are richer than all the nations in the world, with the exception of nine. And I donât mind. [Applause], We aren't going to let any mace stop us. It is very important to notice the style, imagery and structure he uses throughout the speech in particular the way he ends his speech, by leaving the audience at the climax. King�s metaphoric use is powerfully demonstrated It was a dark Saturday afternoon. (Yeah) [Applause] And I don't mind. If I had sneezed [Applause], I wouldn't have been down in Selma, Alabama, to see the great movement there. I was rushed to Harlem Hospital. As I listened to Ralph Abernathy and his eloquent and generous introduction and then thought about myself, I wondered who he was talking about. I just Menu. In this powerful piece, filmmaker Salomon Ligthelm creates a visual interpretation of King's final speech, "I've Been to the Mountaintop," using found archive footage. Did you ever think about that? Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. For when people get caught up with that which is right and they are willing to sacrifice for it, there is no stopping point short of victory. But now no longer can they just talk about it. As with the first paper, I chose Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther [Applause] Now let us maintain unity. Martin Luther King Jr.âs âI've Been To The Mountain Topâ speech is more of a promise from him to the African-Americans and all other people who were facing racial prejudice at the time that they will and they need to overcome these inequalities by joining forces with each other.
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