terminalia superba leaves

When posting your comment, it will take some time before it will become visible. �����6��V�����r2POX����]�����PI�����o~:m l�p���پ�>�5 ���@�4<92'QH_G2m���`�"b� ��_8��r��:c�!�V�~΀"Q��;��H�HyQ�`7U�UvbL�. Limbo (Po). It is a deciduous riparian tree and it can grow up to a height of about 20 to 27 meters. Antidiarrhoeal property of the extract was determined at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal Wistar rats. • Bolza, E. & Keating, W.G., 1972. A favored plantation species in West Africa. powdered dried leaves (l), stem bark (sb) and root (r) of Terminalia mantaly (Tm) and Terminalia superba (Ts) and 12 derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and 4 final residues of selected extracts were assessed for antiplasmodial potential in … in Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Australia, Brazil and Argentina. Fallen leaves are used in the treatment of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases. et Diels (Combretaceae) est une plante largement répartie en Afrique. It is suitable for paper making, although the paper is of moderate quality. Growth rings: (1: growth ring boundaries distinct); (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent). �WK�[���݊���d�n����>�=��3�ۙ���QΩp�����)Q����jb��aLIXlaYߍ_u�C)$��Z�%�^W�Aζ`5h Gᨘ��Dd�o����o���E���H���6�/P ���A�aӸbr#I�ܚ]wq�0��3� `30����l�PL=H��&,T0v%�[z��R��L�:�$-�Y�����#��PO_���-�⋑�yL8��hP6��k(�Z��qN,����9�6΂�>�J]�����G��)���W]�����U�ˣ!%>|oD���-x`c��8�IY�f�2��-{��k�r�hW�,�o.��J[��XGH�*�fX��a��0�a�Lz��A����w�4���_ѹh�*獹�Ʊ� �Ɨ��u�k݀��θ�4Х~Pd͖mN�#��)�m�b뵥8WRW']- �U>�J����-�W6������"fW�.�a�|7���p͓z�+m5��&d����[[ �Zĵ����6pNT��ҋ�"m��$.�Łj� �����9�6��a�S����q�X����֘l�K��^��L8‹��Z�TAW�3��|�&�v�����L��_x�n�kK�s�WV7��Ze\ʷ'� �j����V�r�sݹg) �� Leaves arranged spirally, clustered near ends of branchlets, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole (1.5–)3–6(–7) cm long, with 2 glands near apex; blade obovate, (4–)6–17(–20) cm × (2.5–)4–10 cm, cuneate at base, short-acuminate at apex, thinly leathery, glabrous, pinnately veined with 4–7 pairs of lateral veins. Only one species, T. Catappa, the Indian almond or tropical almond, is well known in American horticulture, but several others are important in the Orient, principally for their fruits, known as myrobalans, which are used in dyeing, tanning, and in medicine. Soil properties and nutrient distribution under Terminalia superba Engl. Positions of sampling of leaf samples for the study of nutrient concentrations in the leaves of forest trees {Terminalia superba and Pynanthus angolcnsis) in Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve, Cameroon. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. Ethanol extract of leaves is used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder. Terminalia (alluding to the leaves being borne upon the terminus of the shoot). "Korina" a trade name in the United States. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. The average annual increment in heartwood volume in plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha. It is found in regions with an annual rainfall of (1000–)1400–3000 (–3500) mm and a dry season up to 4 months, and mean annual temperatures of 23–27°C. Terminalia superba is widespread in West and Central Africa, from Guinea Bissau east to DR Congo and south to Cabinda (Angola). Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. Deals with: T. superba, T. ivorensis, T. macroptera (heartwood extracts); T. catappa (heartwood extracts and stem bark); T. glaucescens (rootlets, root bark, leaves and fruits); T. laxiflora (leaves, fruits and root bark); and T. avicennioides (root bark). The number of leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. Superb Terminalia is a photoautotroph. hal-00882811 Original article Vegetative development, primary and secondary growth of the shoot system of young Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. Terminalia superba, the superb terminalia or limba, afara (UK), korina (US), is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa. Please cite this paper as: Ngemenya MN, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou D, Kang TR, Mbah JA. In Liberia and Ghana the minimum bole diameter for exploitation has been fixed at 70 cm, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm. Individuals can grow to 5.4 m. Terminalia Catappa leave extract is used topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease. Limba, fraké, noyer du Mayombe (Fr). The flowers are small and white, and produced at the end of dry season before the new leaves. Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Flowers bisexual or male, regular, usually 5-merous; receptacle spindle-shaped, 1.5–3 mm long; sepals triangular, c. 1.5 mm long; petals absent; stamens usually 10, free, 1.5–3 mm long; disk annular, densely woolly hairy; ovary inferior, 1-celled, style 2–2.5 mm long, sparsely hairy. Terminalia superba Engl. They float in water and can thus be transported by river. Terminalia arjuna is a member of Combretaceae family. Mwalambe (Sw). Names of Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the world are also given. Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties. Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia or Limba, Afara (UK), Korina (US) ) is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa.. Engl., Monogr. Elle est beaucoup employée en pharmacopée indigène. Terminalia L. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. Terminalia superba or commonly known as Shinglewood is a deciduous, fastgrowing, large tree, about 60 m in height, with buttressed, cylindrical trunk and domed or flat crown. Limba, white afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo walnut (En). pp. 4: 26, t. 14B (1900). Research Article Open Access 3 4 0///107 9 1056,/301 Revie Article Open Access Fahmy et al., Med Aromat Plants 2015, 4:5c 10.4172/2167-0412.1000218 *Corresponding author: & Wong, W.C. (Editors). • Adewunmi, C.O., Agbedahunsi, J.M., Adebajo, A.C., Aladesanmi, A.J., Murphy, N. & Wando, J., 2001. • Sosef, M.S.M., Boer, E., Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula. It is most common in disturbed forest. Fruit a winged nut, transversely oblong-elliptical in outline, 1.5–2.5 cm × 4–7 cm including the wing, nut c. 1.5 cm × 7 mm, golden brown, glabrous, indehiscent, 1-seeded. It has simple, broad leaves. Freshly harvested logs should be removed from the forest immediately, or de-barked and treated with fungicides and insecticides, to avoid attacks by fungi and borers. It has a self-supporting growth form. The methanol extracts were combined, filtered, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C. Older trees often develop boles with brittle heart. leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. Annales des sciences forestières, INRA/EDP Sciences, 1992, 49 (4), pp.389-402. Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Flies. Combretaceae. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. The heartwood is grey to pale yellow or pinkish white, darkening to pale reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner part. Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps[ Leaves : Terminalia Catappa leaves are rich in flavonoid content. Yields were dependent upon plant species, parts and solvent of extraction. Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl 3–4 cm long, epicotyl 1.5–2 cm long; cotyledons leafy, spreading; first 2 leaves opposite. VFr�GY���{��$>�DMփ=*m�qj�}t�ck��~�����5S�q��V�Fi��a�yI�a���n{! shown in Figure 1. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77: 19–24. Table 2: Documentation of Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment and Management of Human Diseases by Some Communities in Southern Ghana The aqueous extract of Terminalia superba leaves was subjected to phytochemical screening. It occurs up to 1000 m altitude. Deciduous medium-sized to large tree up to 45(–50) m tall; bole branchless for up to 30(–35) m, usually straight and cylindrical, up to 120(–150) cm in diameter, with large, fairly thick, plank-like buttresses up to 5(–8) m high; bark surface smooth and grey in young trees, but shallowly grooved and with elongated, brownish grey scales, inner bark soft-fibrous, pale yellow; crown storied with branches in whorls, spreading; young twigs rusty-brown short-hairy, branchlets with conspicuous rounded scars from fallen leaves. Distribution: Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire; occurs in rain and savanna forests. Terminalia superba is a deciduous tree species that is usually found in the upper storey in deciduous, semideciduous and moist tropical forests, where it occurs naturally. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). Terminalia superba is a deciduous Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 40 m (131ft) at a fast rate. 474–492. The rotation that is often applied in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum conditions it can be only 20–25 years. As a pioneer species with abundant regeneration and a wide distribution, Clonal breeding is a line of research in the genetic improvement programme for. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. It is suitable for light construction, light flooring, ship building, interior trim, vehicle bodies, sporting goods, toys, novelties, musical instruments, food containers, vats, turnery, hardboard, particle board and pulpwood. E and W indicate the eastern and western sides of the tree. This supports their use in traditional treatment of malaria, further development into an antimalarial phytomedicine and search for antimalarial lead from their secondary metabolites. Cette espèce est originaire d' Afrique : Angola, Cameroun, République du Congo, République démocratique du Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinée, Guinée-Bissau, Guinée équatoriale, Libéria, Nigeria et Sierra Leone. How Terminalia Chebula is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Pflanzen-Fam. and Diels (Afara) stands of 11, 13 and 15 years of age and the adjacent natural vegetation at two sites in Onigambari and Sapoba in southwestern were compared.. Results from Table 1 show that plant extraction yields varied from 7.45 to 35.50% for Terminalia mantaly parts and from 2.27 to 17.18% for Terminalia superba parts. In natural forest in the Central African Republic a mean annual bole diameter increment of 9.5 mm has been recorded, in Cameroon 11 mm. It is used locally for temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils. The two sites differed in climate, parent materials and soil properties. x�f銠]D��~.W�5�l��q,�E�����4�ش���"Y�G�"I�\Q��~������,��$\yC�����[��ٻI4��┴S�0���f�TQT�n��h>��=)l���X86 Terminalia superba, le fraké ou limba, est une espèce d’arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae. Since Terminalia superba is rich in polyphenols (Momo et al., 2009), this activity can be explained by the polyphenols contain in this plant extract. The leaves of Terminalia bellirica (250 g) and Terminalia sericea (250 g) were air-dried, ground, and extracted with 100% methanol at room temperature for three days (6 × 500 mL). Annual growth rates of 2.5 m in height have been reported for the first 10 years after planting, but in Ghana trees have reached 14 m in height and 22 cm in bole diameter at an age of 4 years. List of various diseases cured by Terminalia Chebula. This study confirms the high antiplasmodial activity and safety of T. catappa and T. superba leaves. Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 26: intervessel pits medium (7–10 μm); 27: intervessel pits large (. It is native to India but also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and some other Asian Countries. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Terminalia superba is a large tree, up to 50 m tall and 5 m in girth, bole cylindrical, long and straight with large, flat buttresses, 6 m above the soil surface; crown open, generally flattened, consisting of … http://www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp?ccode=tem_su, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/ agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License. Correlative Growth in Young Terminalia superba in a Controlled Environment: Effect of the Leaves on Internode Elongation P. MAILLARD, M. JACQUES and E. MIGINIAC Institut de Physiologie Végétale (Phytotron) C.N.R.S., Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190. It has been planted in many tropical countries outside the natural distribution area as a promising timber plantation species, e.g. Other Common Names: Ofram (Ghana), Frake (Ivory Coast), Afara (Nigeria), Akom (Cameroon), Limba (Zaire, Angola). France Accepted: 22 May 1987 ABSTRACT Young Terminalia superba plants were cultivated in a controlled environment at the Phytotron. It is not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood. Bottom middle, upper and top crown positions are designated by the letters B, M, U, and T respectively. Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia) is a species of tree in the family Combretaceae. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. The soil bulk density of the skid trail was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 25.8% whereas the landing bay soil bulk density was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 59.2% compared to the control. ���p9Bo-�nҺ��7�nXܻ�*��Ky7�ƃ�Z��٦�ɗ�]�q�{w�o;U��F�d*�5.�r3ۉ_��=)����b�{�Q�s'ˬ}�p6�,d{7�U��[g������Ր�w�>bc�,t6�㝁���t��䭬|���{7�΢�o���m�g�o^������|�������n��+����o��ȓ� �V���;D���q*��(L�W�����H���R��S�s�R��x��� L��r@�͉�.��l���4QT��� ���k�k�c׽n���4g��y�p�kwm�!�֭cUS�9�r��k����i�=f�j��hCj� �.���bhmt/�KQ� >*w)�d�/��u~��9��0�a��Sw��,e _@C�������Ga�^���v�j�U_�5]��ŝ��q �c5}�e.�V�����ӫ;�N9;��tA���^�L �K��?�}�P��P��ڽl��y��3k'�s�[�%N�Q�Kk.�~F�ѥ���Ö$���g/a��N�.� 'Y30�� 27,�s��{o�c$x@wZl��59�&��v�{ ���j`����qm#�`�|�D���/o5bv�9�d�0���t����f0f���A�%�Lq � Growth is rhythmic, resulting in clustered leaves and whorled branches. Under good conditions planted trees may reach a bole diameter of 50 cm in 20 years. 710 pp. Terminalia superba: Family: Combretaceae: Afara. Inflorescence an axillary spike 7–20 cm long, slender; peduncle 1–4 cm long, short-hairy. afrik. African timbers: the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species. I. Spatial variation in structure and size of axes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the hypotensive as well as the antihypertensive effects of a crude aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba. Trunk diameter can be up to 1.5 m. It is native to western Africa. Leaves usually spirally arranged, often crowded at the ends of the branches, sometimes on short shoots, rarely opposite, petiolate or subsessile, usually entire but occasionally subcrenate, often with 2 or more glands at or near the base of the lamina or on the petiole (but not in our area). Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. 5. Conclusions. Terminalia superba is classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after forest exploitation. The wood, usually traded as ‘limba’, ‘afara’, ‘ofram’ or ‘fraké’, is valued for interior joinery, door posts and panels, mouldings, furniture, office-fittings, crates, matches, and particularly for veneer and plywood. The wood is also used as firewood and for charcoal production. The grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse. In natural forest in Cameroon an average density of 0.4–3.5, Young plantations in Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria have been defoliated by larvae of the moth. In general, leaves as source and water as extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol. Le présent travail a pour objectif de réaliser une synthèse bibliographique et une analyse des résultats de recherche portant sur la composition phytochimique ainsi que les propriétés biologiques et pharmacologiques de T. superba. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. ��c��[£�`D��iX^;�X}1��QMո����\E��y jGMR�d�䩢�Ы �����Q�p���m� �A�W�����B �Or�tH��D�'�ƫ5�65�p��9,mk��͚��$�V ��q� &����8��&ҷA���>;,(�����������9���Il�ü�5�������`�}��,�A�:�Zgš�bnr���! The plant is not self-fertile. It also treats Intestinal parasites and Eye problems. Terminalia superba is most common in moist semi-deciduous forest, but can also be found in evergreen forest. Limba .

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